CARTO-Merge® Module facilitates the identification of specific anatomical landmarks (i.e., pulmonary vein ostia) on the segmented CT or MRI image, as well as on the generated CARTO® map of the left atrium (LA).
Kabra, Rajesh and Singh, Jagmeet (2010). “Recent Trends in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation.” Indian Pacing Electrophysiology Journal. Vol. 10, no. 5: 215-227
This image depicts the pathway of an atrial fibrillation circuit. The circuit travels according to the colors. Red-> Orange -> Yellow -> Green -> Blue -> Purple. The dots represent the ablation lesions which occur around the ipsilateral veins and roof and anterior lines. Ablation strategies which target the pulmonary veins are the cornerstone of atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. LAA: left atrial appendage; LSPV: left superior pulmonary vein; LIPV: left inferior pulmonary vein; RSPV: right superior pulmonary vein; RIPV: right inferior pulmonary vein.
-open source image
This image shows atypical atrial flutter in the left atrium rotating in a counterclockwise direction around the mitral valve. This could have occurred due to a previous mitral valve repair surgery. Atrial flutter needs a point of focus to rotate around. This point of focus is normally a scarred area within the heart such as one that could occur after mitral valve repair.
Jais, Pierre, et. al. “Technique and Results of Linear Ablation at the Mitral Isthmus.” Circulation. Nov 1, 2004. Vol. 110, no. 19: 2996-3002
At times a patient can have many different circuits going on. In this case, 3 circuits were occurring simultaneously in this patient causing atrial flutter. The first loop starts at the mitral annulus and ascends to the anterior LA roof, then continues into the common channel at the base of the LA appendage and finally returns to the mitral annulus. The second loop rotates around an anterior silent area that picks up no signal and also proceeds through this common channel at the base of the LA appendage to finally return to its starting point. The third loop rotates around a posterior silent area and again proceeds through the common channel.White double lines represent zones of ablation that produced a blockage of these circuits.
Jais, Pierre, et. al. (2000). “Mapping and Ablation of Left Atrial Flutters.” Circulation. Vol. 101: 2928-2934